[WCIR2010]开展早期健康生活方式预防糖尿病及心血管疾病
Healthy Lifestyle early in Life to Prevention Diabetes and Cardiovascular Disease
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专家访谈 预防策略 作者:StephenR.Daniels 来源:未知 2010/12/6 16:12:00    加入收藏
内容概要:《国际糖尿病》:生活方式干预是糖尿病和心血管疾病治疗的热点话题。作为一名儿科心脏病专家,您建议儿童开始考虑健康生活方式的合适年龄是多大?为什么?

                                                Stephen R. Daniels教授  美国科罗拉多大学丹佛医学院   

    <International Diabetes>: Lifestyle intervention is a hot topic both in diabetes and cardiovascular medicine.  As an expert in pediatric cardiology, what is the appropriate age that you suggest children begin to take consider a healthy lifestyle and why?
   《国际糖尿病》:生活方式干预是糖尿病和心血管疾病治疗的热点话题。作为一名儿科心脏病专家,您建议儿童开始考虑健康生活方式的合适年龄是多大?为什么?

    Prof Daniels: Actually, in some ways, lifestyle begins in utero, as the mother’s choices regarding nutrition are quite important for the health of the fetus.  It also appears that lifestyle choices early in life can have a long term impact. For example, breastfeeding should be encouraged.  As a child grows, the home environment is very important to maintain a healthy lifestyle. So, parents should begin at an early age of the child to assess what foods are available in the home and provide healthy, nutrient dense foods.  Families should also organize age and development appropriate physical activity for the child and limit sedentary time. Healthy lifestyle established early in life is likely to be more resistant to adverse changes later on.
    Daniels教授:事实上,从某种意义上讲,生活方式从子宫中就开始了,因为妈妈对于营养的选择对胎儿的健康非常重要。也就是说生命早期的生活方式选择具有长期影响。例如,应当鼓励母乳喂养。在儿童成长过程中,家庭环境对维持一个健康的生活方式非常重要。因此,在孩子很小时,家长就应当开始评估家里应当提供哪些食物,制作健康营养的食物。家庭也应当根据孩子的年龄开展适当的体育活动,减少静坐的时间。孩子小时候确立的健康的生活方式对后期的不良改变更有抵抗力。

     <International Diabetes>: Some pediatricians believe for developmental reasons children should not diet for weight control.  What is your advice for obese children or adolescents to control their weight while not impairing their development? 
    《国际糖尿病》:一些儿科医生认为,由于发育的问题,儿童不应当节食来控制体重。对儿童及青少年,您有什么建议来控制他们的体重同时不影响他们的发育?

    Prof Daniels :The approach to diet for obese children and adolescents depends on the degree of overweight, the age of the child or adolescent, and the presence/absence of medical comorbidities related to obesity.  Many children do not need to lose weight but can achieve a more optimum body mass index by maintaining their weight while they grow. This is particularly true for younger children. However, some children and adolescents are already at a body mass index that would be considered obese by adult standards, and some of these children and adolescents have already developed type 2 diabetes, hypertension or dyslipidemia. For these individuals, a more aggressive approach to diet is required which will result in weight loss. In general, research has shown that pediatricians and family physicians should not worry about the recommended changes in diet leading to problems with adequate growth and development.  The proposed approach to diet is associated with normal growth and development.  It is also important to emphasize that physical activity is an important part of any weight management strategy.
    Daniels教授:对幼儿这是非常正确的。肥胖儿童和青少年节食的方法取决于超重的程度,儿童及青少年的年龄和肥胖相关并发症的存在与否。很多儿童不需要控制体重,但可以在生长发育过程中通过维持体重达到更适宜的体重指数。对幼儿来说尤其如此。然而,一些儿童和青少年的体重指数按照成人的标准已经达到可以被诊断为肥胖的程度,其中的一些儿童和青少年已经出现2型糖尿病,高血压或血脂异常。对这些人需要采取更积极的方法来控制饮食,从而减轻体重。总的来说,研究显示,儿科医生和家庭医生不需要担心推荐的饮食改变会影响生长发育。推荐的饮食方法可以保证正常的生长发育。 需要强调的是体育活动在任何体重控制方法中都是非常重要的一部分。

    <International Diabetes>: Do you think there are any special circumstances that should be paid close attention to in children or even infants to reduce their cardio risk later in life? 
  《国际糖尿病》:您认为对儿童甚至婴儿来说,需要特别关注的哪些特殊情况以减少他们以后的心脏病风险?

    Prof Daniels: The current prevention recommendations focus on 2 strategies. The first is a population wide approach that seeks to improve diet, physical activity and other lifestyle factors for all children. The second approach, often referred to as the high risk approach, focuses on identifying and treating those children at higher risk for future cardiovascular disease.  This approach uses family history as one way to identify those at higher risk.  This approach also emphasizes that children should have assessment of their risk factor status for things such as obesity and hypertension on a regular basis as part of primary care visits.
    Daniels教授:当前的预防建议集中于2种方法。第一种是人群范围使用的方法,努力改善所有儿童的饮食,体育活动及其它生活方式因素。第二种方法通常指的是高危人群的方法,聚焦于筛查和治疗未来发生心血管疾病风险较高的儿童。这种方法将家族史作为筛查高危儿童的一种方法。这种方法也强调,应当将定期评估儿童的肥胖和高血压的危险因素状态作为初级保健随访的一部分。


 

 延伸阅读
网站用户: 张辉 时间:2011/4/28 9:18:32
生活方式干预是未来保障和预防疾病的一个重要方面

网站用户: 匿名用户 时间:2011/4/20 20:41:00
小平同志早就说过:......要从娃娃抓起!糖尿病亦如此!

网站用户: 黄金 时间:2011/4/19 23:04:37
值得进行科普宣传,优生优育

网站用户: 周义 时间:2011/3/28 5:07:49
好资料,值得交流与讨论

网站用户: 靳素梅 时间:2010/12/21 9:54:07
学习了,健康应从幼儿抓起。

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